Alabama Amendment 4
Path to ballot: Constitutional amendment proposed and passed by the Alabama legislature in 2021 as AL H.B. 388.
What it will do: The proposal amends the state constitution to prohibit changes to election laws six months before a general election. This proposal will limit the state legislature’s ability to respond quickly to emergency situations, but state election officials and the governor will retain authority to do so.
Arizona Proposition 309
Path to ballot: Constitutional amendment proposed and passed by the Arizona legislature in 2022 as AZ S.C.R. 1012.
What it would have done: The proposal would have amended the state constitution to impose stricter photo ID requirements for in-person voting and would require mail voters to provide an ID number — an Arizona driver’s license number, an Arizona state ID card number, the last four digits of a Social Security number, or a voter ID number — on the ballot return envelope in order for the ballot to be counted.
Connecticut Question 1
Path to ballot: Constitutional amendment proposed and passed by the Connecticut legislature in 2021 as CT H.J.R. 59.
What it will do: The proposal amends the state constitution to allow the state legislature to establish no-excuse early voting. Currently, Connecticut is one of a handful of states without some form of early, in-person voting before Election Day.
Michigan Proposal 2
Path to ballot: Voter-led initiative that garnered the threshold amount of voter signatures to be placed on general ballot.
What it will do: The proposal would add several expansive voting policies to the state constitution: establishing a voter’s right to sign an affidavit of identity if they do not have requisite state ID when voting in person or applying for an absentee ballot in person, requiring jurisdictions conducting statewide and federal elections to offer nine days of early voting, providing for state-funded prepaid return postage and a tracking system for absentee ballots, allowing voters to register for permanent absentee voting, setting a minimum threshold for ballot drop box availability, mandating that post-election audits only be conducted by state and local officials, and enumerating the fundamental right to vote without harassment or intimidation.
Nebraska Initiative 432
Path to ballot: After a constitutional amendment proposal died in a state legislative committee, its Republican sponsor and Republican party officials launched a petition drive that garnered the threshold amount of voter signatures to place the amendment on the general ballot.
What it will do: The proposal amends the state constitution to impose a voter photo ID requirement in all elections and authorize the state legislature to specify what constitutes a valid ID. Currently, only certain first-time voters in Nebraska may be asked to present a voter ID at the polls. The state legislature — which has attempted several times to pass photo ID laws, including a failed attempt by the same legislator who spearheaded the Nebraska ballot initiative — will now have broad discretion to introduce strict photo ID legislation for voting as early as the 2023 legislation session.
Ohio Issue 2
Path to ballot: Constitutional amendment proposed and passed by the Ohio legislature in 2022 as OH S.J.R. 6.
What it will do: The proposal amends the state constitution to prohibit local governments from allowing individuals who are not citizens to vote in local elections. It would also require that a voter in any state or local election be at least 18 years of age, a legal resident, and registered voter for at least 30 days. The initiative is direct response to a local jurisdiction allowing individuals who are not citizens to vote in municipal elections. Ohio is the seventh state to implement a prohibition on voting for those who aren’t citizens. In December, Louisianans will vote on a similar initiative.