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State Hate Crimes Statutes

State laws against hate crimes vary widely, resulting in unequal protection from similar violent crimes in different jurisdictions.

  • Brennan Center for Justice
Last Updated: July 2, 2020
Published: July 1, 2019

Updated July 2, 2020

Repor­ted increases in far-right viol­ence have led poli­cy­makers to search for new solu­tions. Because these attacks on vulner­able communit­ies are often invest­ig­ated and prosec­uted as hate crimes or viol­ent crimes, part of the solu­tion is ensur­ing that they are accur­ately tracked and repor­ted. Unfor­tu­nately, federal hate crimes data is flawed and incom­plete. This is due in large part to the Depart­ment of Justice’s reli­ance on volun­tary report­ing from state and local law enforce­ment to fulfill its oblig­a­tion to report national hate crimes data.

There are wide dispar­it­ies in the protec­tions provided by the vari­ous state hate crimes laws, result­ing in unequal protec­tion from similar viol­ent crimes in differ­ent juris­dic­tions and the frus­tra­tion of efforts to collect and main­tain accur­ate national data regard­ing these attacks. Six Five states — Arkan­sas, Geor­gia, Indi­ana, North Dakota, South Caro­lina, and Wyom­ing — do not even have hate crime laws.

The table below illus­trates the differ­ences in hate crimes laws among the states and U.S. territ­or­ies. It includes all state hate crimes stat­utes as well as laws that protect against activ­it­ies commonly under­stood as hate crimes, such as display­ing a noose or burn­ing a cross. The table tracks whether the stat­utes estab­lish inde­pend­ent hate crime offenses or if they are used to enhance penal­ties on under­ly­ing crimes. It also notes stat­utes that require data collec­tion, hate crimes train­ing for law enforce­ment officers, or provi­sions for altern­at­ive resol­u­tions to address­ing the harms caused by such crimes.

The table is part of the Bren­nan Center report Fight­ing Far-Right Viol­ence and Hate Crimes: Reset­ting Federal Law Enforce­ment Prior­it­ies.

Click on states to show and hide their hate crime stat­utes.

Stat­ute

Summary

Type

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Alabama

Stat­ute

ALA. CODE § 13A-5–13

“Crimes Motiv­ated by Victim’s Race, Color, Reli­gion, National Origin, Ethni­city, or Phys­ical or Mental Disab­il­ity”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ments for crimes found to have been motiv­ated by the victim’s actual or perceived race, color, reli­gion, national origin, ethni­city, or phys­ical or mental disab­il­ity

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, disab­il­ity, ethni­city

Stat­ute

ALA. CODE § 13A-6–28

“Cross or Amer­ican Flag Burn­ing”

Summary

Makes it a felony to burn a cross with the intent to intim­id­ate another person on the prop­erty of another, high­way, or public place.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Other

Alaska

Stat­ute

ALASKA STAT. § 12.55.155

“Factors in Aggrav­a­tion and Mitig­a­tion”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ments when the under­ly­ing crime was found to be know­ingly direc­ted because of the victim’s race, sex, color, creed, phys­ical or mental disab­il­ity, ances­try, or national origin.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, national origin, disab­il­ity, sex, creed, ances­try

Arizona

Stat­ute

ARIZ. REV. STAT. ANN. § 13–701(D)(15)

“Sentence of Impris­on­ment for Felony; Presen­tence Report; Aggrav­at­ing and Mitig­at­ing Factors; Consec­ut­ive Terms of Impris­on­ment; Defin­i­tion”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment when the crime was commit­ted with malice toward a victim because of their real or perceived race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, or disab­il­ity.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, or disab­il­ity

Stat­ute

ARIZ. REV. STAT. ANN. § 13–1604(A)(1)

“Aggrav­ated Crim­inal Damage”

Summary

Felony penalty enhance­ment for crim­inal damage to prop­erty, includ­ing deface­ment, when the build­ing, struc­ture, personal prop­erty or place is used for worship or any other reli­gious purpose, includ­ing burial facil­it­ies.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion

Stat­ute

ARIZ. REV. STAT. ANN. § 13–1707

“Unlaw­ful Cross Burn­ing”

Summary

Makes it a misde­meanor to burn a cross on the prop­erty of another, high­way, or other public place with the intent to intim­id­ate another.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Other

Stat­ute

ARIZ. REV. STAT. ANN. § 13–1708

“Unlaw­ful Symbol Burn­ing”

Summary

Makes it a misde­meanor to burn a symbol on the prop­erty of another, high­way, or other public place with the intent to intim­id­ate another.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Other

Stat­ute

ARIZ. REV. STAT. ANN. § 41–1750(A)(3)

“Cent­ral State Repos­it­ory; Depart­ment of Public Safety; Duties; Funds; Accounts; Defin­i­tions.”

Summary

Requires the creation of a cent­ral state repos­it­ory is respons­ible for collect­ing, stor­ing and dissem­in­at­ing complete and accur­ate Arizona crim­inal history and records, includ­ing hate crime data.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity

Arkan­sas – No Crim­inal “Hate Crime” Stat­ute

Stat­ute

ARK. CODE ANN. § 5–71–215(b)(1)(B)

“Defa­cing Objects of Public Respect”

Summary

Felony penalty enhance­ment for defil­ing, desec­rat­ing, marring, or other­wise damaging any place of worship, cemetery, or burial monu­ment.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion

Cali­for­nia

Summary

Makes it a misde­meanor to injure, intim­id­ate, or inter­fere with the rights and priv­ileges of another in whole or part because of the actual or perceived race, color, reli­gion, national origin, ethni­city, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, or disab­il­ity of the victim, includ­ing damage to prop­erty. Includes mandat­ory community service. Provides that commis­sion of a hate crime is an aggrav­at­ing factor for under­ly­ing crimes, where the crime included the present abil­ity to commit a viol­ent injury or did cause phys­ical injury, the prop­erty crime caused damage in excess of $950, or the offender was previ­ously convicted of a hate crime. Addi­tion­ally, provides a penalty enhance­ment for someone who commits or attempts to commit a felony motiv­ated by bias.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity, disab­il­ity. ethni­city, asso­ci­ation with a person or group with one or more of these actual or perceived char­ac­ter­ist­ics

Stat­ute

CAL. PENAL CODE § 11411

“Terror­iz­ing”

Summary

Makes it a misde­meanor to hang a noose; display a sign, mark, symbol, emblem or other phys­ical impres­sion includ­ing but not limited to a Nazi swastika; or burn or desec­rate a cross or reli­gious symbol with reck­less disreg­ard of the risk of terror­iz­ing the owner or occu­pant of private, reli­gious, or public prop­erty.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion, other

Stat­ute

CAL. PENAL CODE § 11412

“Terror­iz­ing”

Summary

Makes it a felony to cause or attempt to cause another to refrain from exer­cising their reli­gion or enga­ging in a reli­gious service by means of a threat of unlaw­ful injury.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion

Stat­ute

CAL. PENAL CODE § 13023

“Depart­ment of Justice – Duties of Public Agen­cies and Officers”

Summary

Requires statewide collec­tion of hate crime data.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

Stat­ute

CAL. PENAL CODE § 13519.6

“Commis­sion on Peace Officer Stand­ards & Train­ing – Field Services and Stand­ards for Recruit­ment & Train­ing”

Summary

Requires the devel­op­ment of guidelines and law enforce­ment train­ing on respond­ing to hate crimes, provid­ing victim services, and gath­er­ing and report­ing accur­ate data.

Type

Train­ing

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

Color­ado

Stat­ute

COLO. REV. STAT. § 18–9–113 (1)(b)

“Desec­ra­tion of Vener­ated Objects”

Summary

Higher-class misde­meanor penalty enhance­ment for desec­rat­ing vener­ated objects, includ­ing places of worship or burial grounds.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion, other

Stat­ute

COLO. REV. STAT. § 18–9–121

“Bias-Motiv­ated Crimes”

Summary

Makes it a crime if, with the intent to intim­id­ate or harass another person because of that person’s actual or perceived race, color, reli­gion, ances­try, national origin, phys­ical or mental disab­il­ity, or sexual orient­a­tion, they cause bodily injury to another person, or destroys or damages the prop­erty of another person.

* Court is direc­ted to consider altern­at­ives for first-time offend­ers, includ­ing community service to bene­fit public & victim’s community; restor­at­ive justice altern­at­ive dispute resol­u­tion program.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment *

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, ances­try

Connecti­cut

Stat­ute

CONN. GEN. STAT. § 7–294n

“State and Local Police Train­ing Programs to Provide Train­ing on Crimes Motiv­ated by Bigotry or Bias”

Summary

Requires law enforce­ment agen­cies to review and estab­lish train­ing relat­ive to crimes motiv­ated by bigotry or bias.

Type

Train­ing

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

Stat­ute

CONN. GEN. STAT. § 29–7m

“Record and Clas­si­fic­a­tion of Crimes Motiv­ated by Bigotry or Bias”

Summary

Requires police, resid­ent state troop­ers or constables to monitor, record, and clas­sify all crimes commit­ted based on bigotry or bias.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

Stat­ute

CONN. GEN. STAT. § 46a-58

“Depriva­tion of Rights. Desec­ra­tion of Prop­erty. Placing of burn­ing cross or noose on prop­erty.”

Summary

Makes it either a misde­meanor or felony to deprive another of rights, priv­ileges, or immunit­ies because of reli­gion, national origin, alien­age, color, race, sex, gender iden­tity or expres­sion, sexual orient­a­tion, blind­ness or phys­ical disab­il­ity. Includes burn­ing a cross or placing a noose on the prop­erty of another, or on public prop­erty with the intent to intim­id­ate or harass another.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity, disab­il­ity, sex, alien­age, other

Stat­ute

CONN. GEN. STAT. § 53–37a

“Depriva­tion of a Person’s Civil Rights by Wear­ing a Mask or Hood”

Summary

Felony penalty enhance­ment for depriving another of rights, § 46a-58, while wear­ing a mask, hood or other device designed to conceal the iden­tity.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Other

Stat­ute

CONN. GEN. STAT. §§ 53a-181j – 53a-181j

“Intim­id­a­tion Based on Bigotry”

Summary

Makes it a misde­meanor or felony to intim­id­ate based on bigotry or bias of real or perceived race, reli­gion, ethni­city, disab­il­ity, sexual orient­a­tion or gender iden­tity or expres­sion, with first, second, or third-degree penal­ties.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, reli­gion, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity, disab­il­ity, ethni­city

Dele­ware

Stat­ute

DEL. CODE ANN. tit. 11, § 1304

“Hate Crimes”

Summary

Felony and misde­meanor penalty enhance­ments when victims are selec­ted because of their race, reli­gion, color, disab­il­ity, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity, national origin or ances­try.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity, disab­il­ity, ances­try

Stat­ute

DEL. CODE ANN. tit. 11, § 805

“Cross or Reli­gious Symbol Burn­ing”

Summary

Makes it a misde­meanor to burn a cross or other reli­gious symbol on public or private prop­erty without express writ­ten consent.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Other

Wash­ing­ton D.C.

Stat­ute

D.C. CODE § 22–3312.02

“Defa­cing or Burn­ing Cross or Reli­gious Symbol; Display of Certain Emblems”

Summary

Makes it a misde­meanor to burn, desec­rate, mar, or deface a cross or other reli­gious symbol or display hate­ful emblems such as a Nazi swastika or noose on the private premises or prop­erty in D.C. primar­ily used for reli­gious, educa­tional, resid­en­tial, memorial, char­it­able, or cemetery purposes, or for assembly of persons of a partic­u­lar race, color, creed, reli­gion, or any category listed in 2–1401-.01 (national origin, sex, age, marital status, personal appear­ance, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity or expres­sion, familial status, family respons­ib­il­ity, matric­u­la­tion, polit­ical affil­i­ation, genetic inform­a­tion, disab­il­ity, source of income, status as a victim of an intra­fam­ily offense, place of resid­ence or busi­ness), with the intent to injure, intim­id­ate, or threaten said persons or groups.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, creed, reli­gion, national origin, sex, age, marital status, personal appear­ance, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity or expres­sion, familial status, family respons­ib­il­ity, matric­u­la­tion, polit­ical affil­i­ation, genetic inform­a­tion, disab­il­ity, source of income, status as a victim of an intra­fam­ily offense, place of resid­ence or busi­ness

Stat­ute

D.C. CODE ch. 37 [§§ 22–3701 – 22–3704]

“Bias-Related Crime”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ments for those found guilty of commit­ting 'bias-related crimes,' defined as crimes based on a victim’s actual and perceived race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sex, age, marital status, personal appear­ance, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity or expres­sion, family respons­ib­il­ity, home­less­ness, phys­ical disab­il­ity, matric­u­la­tion, or polit­ical affil­i­ation. Addi­tion­ally, requires the Mayor to collect and compile data on the incid­ence of bias-related crimes.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Other

Flor­ida

Stat­ute

FLA. STAT. ANN. § 775.085

“Evid­en­cing Preju­dice While Commit­ting Offense; Reclas­si­fic­a­tion”

Summary

Felony and misde­meanor penalty enhance­ments for any crime when it evid­ences preju­dice based on race, color, ances­try, ethni­city, reli­gion, sexual orient­a­tion, national origin, home­less status, or age.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, ances­try, ethni­city, home­less status, age

Stat­ute

FLA. STAT. ANN. § 806.13 (2)

“Arson and Crim­inal Mischief; Penal­ties”

Summary

Makes it a felony to deface, injure, or damage a church, synagogue, mosque, or other place of worship or reli­gious article contained within.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion, other

Stat­ute

FLA. STAT. ANN. [§§ 876.17, 876.18]

“Placing Burn­ing or Flam­ing Cross”

Summary

Makes it a misde­meanor to place a burn­ing cross on public prop­erty or the prop­erty of another without express writ­ten consent.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Other

Stat­ute

FLA. STAT. ANN. § 877.19

“Hate Crimes Report­ing Act”

Summary

The Governor, in collab­or­a­tion with the Flor­ida Depart­ment of Law Enforce­ment must collect and dissem­in­ate data on crim­inal acts which evid­ence preju­dice based on race, reli­gion, ethni­city, color, ances­try, sexual orient­a­tion, or national origin.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, ethni­city, ances­try

Geor­gia

Stat­ute

GA. CODE ANN. § 16–7–26

“Vandal­ism to a Place of Worship”

Summary

Makes it a felony to mali­ciously deface or desec­rate a place of public reli­gious worship.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion

Stat­ute

GA. CODE ANN. § 16–11–37

“Terror­istic Threats and Acts”

Summary

Makes it a misde­meanor or felony to burn or damage the prop­erty of another or place a flam­ing cross or other burn­ing symbol or flam­beau with the intent to terror­ize.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Other

Stat­ute

GA. CODE ANN. § 17–10–17

“Senten­cing of Defend­ants Guilty of Crimes Involving Bias or Preju­dice; Circum­stances; Parole”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment for defend­ants who inten­tion­ally selec­ted any victim or prop­erty as the object of offense because of bias or preju­dice

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sex, sexual orient­a­tion, gender, mental disab­il­ity, or phys­ical disab­il­ity (Effect­ive July 1, 2020)

Hawaii

Stat­ute

HAW. REV. STAT. § 706–662

“Criteria for Exten­ded Terms of Impris­on­ment”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment when the offender is convicted of a crime under sections 707 (offenses against the person), 708 (offenses against prop­erty rights), or 711 (offenses against public order), and inten­tion­ally selec­ted their victim or prop­erty because of hostil­ity toward the victim’s actual or perceived race, reli­gion, disab­il­ity, ethni­city, national origin, gender iden­tity or expres­sion, or sexual orient­a­tion.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity, or disab­il­ity, ethni­city

Stat­ute

HAW. REV. STAT. [§§ 846–51 – 846–54]

“Hate Crime Report­ing: Defin­i­tions; Respons­ib­il­ity for System; Respons­ib­il­ity of Agen­cies; Annual Reports”

Summary

Defines “hate crime” as any crim­inal act in which the perpet­rator inten­tion­ally selec­ted a victim or prop­erty because of hostil­ity toward the actual or perceived race, reli­gion, disab­il­ity, ethni­city, national origin, gender iden­tity or expres­sion, or sexual orient­a­tion of any person. Mandates collec­tion of data on such crimes

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity, or disab­il­ity, ethni­city

Idaho

Stat­ute

IDAHO CODE ANN. ch. 79 [§§ 18–7901 – 18–7903]

“Mali­cious Harass­ment”

Summary

Makes it a felony to, or to threaten to, injure a person, or damage, destroy, or deface the real or personal prop­erty of another because of the victim’s race, color, reli­gion, ances­try, or national origin, and allows a penalty of impris­on­ment, a fine, or both, as well as estab­lish­ing a civil right of action.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, ances­try

Stat­ute

IDAHO CODE ANN. § 67–2915

“Stat­ist­ical Report of Mali­cious Harass­ment Crimes”

Summary

Requires the director of the Idaho state police to annu­ally submit a report on mali­cious harass­ment crimes to the governor and the chair­man of the judi­ciary and rules commit­tee.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, ances­try, other

Illinois

Stat­ute

720 ILL. COMP. STAT. 5/12–7.1

“Hate Crime”

Summary

Makes it a felony to assault, batter, intim­id­ate, stalk, cyber­stalk, or commit theft, tres­pass, disorderly conduct, by reason of the victim’s perceived race, color, creed, reli­gion, ances­try, gender, gender iden­tity, sexual orient­a­tion, phys­ical or mental disab­il­ity, or national origin.

* Enhance­ment if crime commit­ted in or on grounds of reli­gious build­ing, in a cemetery, in a school, in a public park or ethnic/reli­gious community center, or public way.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Penalty Enhance­ment *

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, gender iden­tity, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, creed, ances­try

Stat­ute

730 ILL. COMP. STAT. 5/5–5–3.2 (10)

“Factors in Aggrav­a­tion and Exten­ded-Term Senten­cing”

Summary

Hate crime offenses are aggrav­at­ing factors in favor of longer terms of impris­on­ment

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, creed, ances­try

Stat­ute

720 ILL. COMP. STAT. 5/12–7.6

“Cross Burn­ing”

Summary

Makes it a misde­meanor upon first offense, and felony upon subsequent offenses to burn or intend to burn a cross with the intent to intim­id­ate.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Other

Stat­ute

720 ILL. COMP. STAT. 5/21–1.2

“Insti­tu­tional Vandal­ism”

Summary

Makes it a felony to commit insti­tu­tional vandal­ism by reason of the actual or perceived race, color, creed, reli­gion, ances­try, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, phys­ical or mental disab­il­ity, or national origin of any indi­vidual when know­ingly inflict­ing damage to a place used for reli­gious worship, a burial facil­ity, adja­cent grounds, and personal prop­erty contained therein.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, creed, ances­try

Stat­ute

20 ILL. COMP. STAT. 2605/390

“Hate Crimes”

Summary

Requires state law enforce­ment officer to respond to, identify, and report all hate crimes. Requires the Illinois Law Enforce­ment Train­ing Stand­ards Board to develop officer train­ing on hate crimes.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Train­ing

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

Stat­ute

20 ILL. COMP. STAT. 4070

“Commis­sion on Discrim­in­a­tion and Hate Crimes Act”

Summary

Commis­sion on Discrim­in­a­tion and Hate Crimes Act. Purposes of the Commis­sion include, but are not limited to, the follow­ing:

(1) To work in part­ner­ship with community lead­ers, educat­ors, reli­gious lead­ers, social service agen­cies, elec­ted offi­cials, and the public to identify and uproot sources of discrim­in­a­tion and bias at the source.

(2) To work with local govern­ments, law enforce­ment offi­cials and prosec­utors, educat­ors, and community organ­iz­a­tions by assist­ing with the devel­op­ment of resources, train­ing, and inform­a­tion that allow for a swift and effi­cient response to hate-motiv­ated incid­ents.

(3) To work with educat­ors through­out Illinois on issues concern­ing discrim­in­a­tion and hate, teach­ing accept­ance, and embra­cing diversity at academic insti­tu­tions.

(4) To help ensure that this States laws address­ing discrim­in­a­tion and hate-related viol­ence are widely known and applied correctly to help erad­ic­ate and prevent crimes based on discrim­in­a­tion and intol­er­ance.

(5) To make recom­mend­a­tions to the Governor and the General Assembly for stat­utory and program­matic changes neces­sary to elim­in­ate discrim­in­a­tion and hate-based viol­ence.

(6) To help imple­ment recom­mend­a­tions by work­ing with State agen­cies, the General Assembly, the busi­ness community, the social service community, and other organ­iz­a­tions.

Type

Commis­sion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

Indi­ana – No Crim­inal “Hate Crime” Stat­ute

Stat­ute

IND. CODE § 35–38–1–7.1 (a)(12)

“Consid­er­a­tions in Impos­ing Sentence”
(not yet encoded)

Summary

Allows the court to consider as an aggrav­at­ing circum­stance in senten­cing if an offender commit­ted the offense with bias due to the victim or group’s real or perceived char­ac­ter­istic, trait, belief, prac­tice, asso­ci­ation, or other attrib­ute the court chooses to consider.

* The fail­ure to list protec­ted classes in the stat­ute, along with its discre­tion­ary applic­a­tion, makes this stat­ute unique among all other “hate crime” legis­la­tion, and has already led to severe criti­cism of the law. Accord­ingly, while import­ant to include a refer­ence in this chart, we do not consider it a true hate crime law.1

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment *

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

Stat­ute

IND. CODE § 10–13–3–38 (b)

“Collec­tion of Bias Crime Inform­a­tion; Reports”

Summary

Requires state law enforce­ment to collect commit­ted or allegedly commit­ted bias crime data, defined in § 10–31–1–1 as an offense commit­ted know­ingly or inten­tion­ally select­ing the victim or prop­erty because of the color, creed, disab­il­ity, national origin, race, reli­gion, or sexual orient­a­tion of the victim or owner or occu­pant of the harmed prop­erty.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, creed

Iowa

Stat­ute

IOWA CODE § 80B.11 1(c)(2)

“Law Enforce­ment Academy: Rules”

Summary

Requires law enforce­ment officers to be trained on invest­ig­a­tion, iden­ti­fic­a­tion, and report­ing of public hate crime offenses.

Type

Train­ing

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

Stat­ute

IOWA CODE § 692.15(7)

“Collec­tion of Bias Crime Inform­a­tion; Reports”

Summary

Requires all law enforce­ment agen­cies to track hate crime data, and to create reports and gener­ate crime stat­ist­ics.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

Stat­ute

IOWA CODE § 708.2C

“Assault in Viol­a­tion of Indi­vidual Rights”

Summary

Makes it a felony to assault someone in the viol­a­tion of indi­vidual rights, which is a hate crime, with the intent to inflict a seri­ous injury.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, or disab­il­ity, ances­try, polit­ical affil­i­ation, sex, age, or asso­ci­ation with someone of those groups

Stat­ute

IOWA CODE § 712.9

“Assault in Viol­a­tion of Indi­vidual Rights”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment to an offense one degree higher for viol­a­tions of sections 712.3 – 712.8 (arson, reck­less use of fire/explos­ives, explos­ive or incen­di­ary mater­i­als, false reports, threats) which are also hate crimes.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, or disab­il­ity, ances­try, polit­ical affil­i­ation, sex, age, or asso­ci­ation with someone of those groups

Stat­ute

IOWA CODE § 716.6A

“Crim­inal Mischief in Viol­a­tion of Indi­vidual Rights”

Summary

Provides for enhanced penal­ties of one degree higher for crim­inal mischief which is also a viol­a­tion of indi­vidual rights, which is a hate crime.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, or disab­il­ity, ances­try, polit­ical affil­i­ation, sex, age, or asso­ci­ation with someone of those groups

Stat­ute

IOWA CODE § 729A

“Viol­a­tion of Indi­vidual Rights – Hate Crimes”

Summary

Defines hate crimes as assaults, viol­a­tions of indi­vidual rights, crim­inal mischief, or tres­pass commit­ted against a person or their prop­erty because of their race, color, reli­gion, ances­try, national origin, polit­ical affil­i­ation, sex, sexual orient­a­tion, age, or disab­il­ity, or their affil­i­ation with someone of these groups. Addi­tion­ally, requires the prosec­ut­ing attor­ney train­ing coordin­ator to develop train­ing for law enforce­ment person­nel to sens­it­ize those people to exist­ence of these viol­a­tions, and to help identify offenses. Provides a civil right of action.

Type

Defin­i­tion

Train­ing

Civil Action

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, or disab­il­ity, ances­try, polit­ical affil­i­ation, sex, age, or asso­ci­ation with someone of those groups

Kansas

Stat­ute

KAN. STAT. ANN. 21–6815

“Impos­i­tion of Presumptive Sentence; Jury Require­ments; Depar­ture Senten­cing; Substan­tial and Compel­ling Reas­ons for Depar­ture; Mitig­at­ing and Aggrav­at­ing Factors”

Summary

Lists race, color, reli­gion, ethni­city, national origin, or sexual orient­a­tion as aggrav­at­ing factors to depart, by judge’s discre­tion, from senten­cing guidelines.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, ethni­city

Kentucky

Stat­ute

KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 17.1523

“Uniform Offense Report to Provide Indic­a­tion of Bias-related Crime; Annual Report­ing”

Summary

Requires the Justice and Public Safety Cabinet to collect data from all law enforce­ment agen­cies on crimes which appear from their facts and circum­stances to have been caused as a result of or reas­on­ably related to race, color, reli­gion, sex, or national origin.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, sex, national origin

Stat­ute

KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 525.113

“Insti­tu­tional Vandal­ism”

Summary

Makes it a felony to vandal­ize, deface, desec­rate, or damage the objects described in 525.110 based on a person’s race, color, reli­gion, sexual orient­a­tion, or national origin.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion

Stat­ute

KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 532.031

“Hate Crimes – Find­ing”

Summary

Defines a hate crime as an offense where a person inten­tion­ally selec­ted their victim based on race, color, reli­gion, sexual orient­a­tion, national origin, or actual or perceived employ­ment as a peace officer, fire­fighter, or emer­gency medical service provider. Empowers a judge to impose harsher penal­ties or deny proba­tion and other forms of early release.

* A find­ing that an offense was a hate crime may only effects parole eligib­il­ity, determ­ined by the parole board. Such a find­ing must be noted, at the judge’s discre­tion, in the offend­er’s case file. Addi­tion­ally, this stat­ute cannot be applied to homicides.2

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment *

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, person’s actual or perceived employ­ment as a state, city, county, or federal peace officer, member of an organ­ized fire depart­ment, or emer­gency medical services person­nel

Louisi­ana

Stat­ute

LA. STAT. ANN. § 14:107.2

“Hate Crimes”

Summary

Provides for penalty enhance­ments when an under­ly­ing crime victim is selec­ted because of their actual or perceived race, age, gender, reli­gion, color, creed, disab­il­ity, sexual orient­a­tion, national origin, or ances­try, or because they are actu­ally or perceived to be employed as law enforce­ment, fire­fighter, or emer­gency medical services person­nel.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, age, creed, ances­try, perceived member­ship or service in, or employ­ment with, an organ­iz­a­tion, or because of actual or perceived employ­ment as a law enforce­ment officer, fire­fighter, or emer­gency medical services person­nel

Stat­ute

LA. STAT. ANN. § 15:1204.4

“Surveys; Stud­ies; Reports”

Summary

Mandates the collec­tion of hate crime data to the Louisi­ana Commis­sion on Human Rights, which shall be repor­ted annu­ally to the governor.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

Stat­ute

LA. STAT. ANN. § 40:2403 (H)(1)

“Coun­cil on Peace Officer Stand­ards and Train­ing”

Summary

Requires law enforce­ment officers to be trained on invest­ig­a­tion, iden­ti­fic­a­tion, and report­ing of public hate crime offenses.

Type

Train­ing

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

Maine

Stat­ute

ME. STAT. tit. 17-A § 1151(8)(B)

“General Senten­cing Provi­sions: Purposes”

Summary

Includes in the guid­ance for senten­cing provi­sions the intent to address the grav­ity of bias motiv­ated attacks.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, sex, ances­try, home­less­ness, age

Stat­ute

ME. STAT. tit. 17 [§§ 2931 – 2932]

“Inter­fer­ence with Consti­tu­tional and Civil Rights”

Summary

Prohib­i­tion on inter­fer­ence with consti­tu­tional and civil rights. Makes it a misde­meanor to viol­ate the prohib­i­tion on inter­fer­ence with consti­tu­tional and civil rights.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, sex, ances­try

Stat­ute

ME. STAT. tit. 25, § 1544

“Uniform Crime Report­ing”

Summary

Requires state, county, and muni­cipal law enforce­ment agen­cies to submit crime reports to the State Bureau of Iden­ti­fic­a­tion, includ­ing on crimes that mani­fest evid­ence of preju­dice based on race, reli­gion, disab­il­ity, sexual orient­a­tion or ethni­city.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, reli­gion, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, ethni­city

Stat­ute

ME. STAT. tit. 25, § 2803-B

“Require­ments of Law Enforce­ment Agen­cies”

Summary

Requires law enforce­ment agen­cies to adopt writ­ten policies on the proced­ures to deal with hate or bias crimes.

Type

Train­ing

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

Mary­land

Stat­ute

MD. CODE, PUB. SAFETY § 2–307

“Public Safety – Crime Data”

Summary

Requires that the Depart­ment of Public Safety collect, analyze, and dissem­in­ate inform­a­tion about crimes, includ­ing hate crimes based on race, reli­gion, ethni­city, and sexual orient­a­tion.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, reli­gion, sexual orient­a­tion, ethni­city

Summary

Makes it a misde­meanor to obstruct another’s exer­cise of reli­gion; to commit or attempt to commit a crime, damage real or personal prop­erty, or burn or attempt to burn an object on the real or personal prop­erty of another; to deface, damage, or destroy a place of worship, cemetery, reli­gious school, educa­tional facil­ity, or community center; to deface, damage, destroy, or attempt to deface, damage, or destroy the personal or real prop­erty of another because of bias against a person or group’s race, color, reli­gious belief, sexual orient­a­tion, gender, disab­il­ity, national origin, or home­less status. May add an addi­tional felony for any under­ly­ing felony crime commit­ted because of the victim’s protec­ted status above, unless the crime results in the victim’s death. Sentences for hate crimes may be separ­ate or concur­rent from sentences for the under­ly­ing crimes.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

Massachu­setts

Stat­ute

MASS. GEN. LAWS ch. 6, § 116B

“Hate Crimes; Police Instruc­tion”

Summary

Requires that the muni­cipal police train­ing commit­tee provide instruc­tion to police officers in identi­fy­ing, respond­ing to, and report­ing hate crimes.

Type

Train­ing

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

Stat­ute

MASS. GEN. LAWS ch. 22C, §§ 33–35

“Collec­tion of Hate Crime Data; Regu­la­tions”

Summary

Requires that the Depart­ment of State Police Colonel collect hate crime data, that the Crime Report­ing Unit report and analyze hate crime data, and trans­mit reports to the governor, attor­ney general, joint commit­tees on public state, crim­inal justice and the judi­ciary, and senate and house commit­tees on ways and means, and that all hate crime data be made avail­able for all law enforce­ment agen­cies and any local and state agen­cies.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

Stat­ute

MASS. GEN. LAWS ch. 265, § 39

“Assault or Battery for Purposes of Intim­id­a­tion; Punish­ment”

Summary

Makes it a felony to commit assault or battery upon a person, or damage the real or personal prop­erty of a person, with the intent to intim­id­ate because of race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity, or disab­il­ity. Also requires mandated diversity train­ing for offend­ers.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity, disab­il­ity

Stat­ute

MASS. GEN. LAWS ch. 266, § 127A

“Destruc­tion of a Place of Worship, etc.; Threats; Punish­ment”

Summary

Makes it a felony to destroy, deface, mar, or injure a church, synagogue or other build­ing or struc­ture used for burial or worship or threaten to do so, which may result in impris­on­ment up to 2.5 years.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion

Michigan

Stat­ute

MICH. COMP. LAWS § 28.257a

“Crimes Motiv­ated by Preju­dice or Bias; Report”

Summary

Requires the chief of police of each city or village, town­ship, and sher­iff of each county to report crimes motiv­ated by preju­dice against race, ethnic origin, reli­gion, gender, or sexual orient­a­tion to the depart­ment of state police.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, reli­gion, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, ethnic origin

Stat­ute

MICH. COMP. LAWS § 750.147b

“Ethnic Intim­id­a­tion”

Summary

Makes it a felony to commit ethnic intim­id­a­tion, defined as phys­ical contact with another person, damage or destruc­tion of real or personal prop­erty of another, or threat­en­ing another mali­ciously and with specific intent to intim­id­ate or harass another because of that person’s race, color, reli­gion, gender, or national origin. Addi­tion­ally, creates a civil right of action.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

New Civial Action

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, gender, national origin

Minnesota

Stat­ute

MINN. STAT. § 609.595 subds. 1a & 2

“Damage to Prop­erty”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment to second-degree and third-degree crim­inal damage when motiv­ated by race, color, reli­gion, sex, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, age, or national origin.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, age, sex

Stat­ute

MINN. STAT. § 609.749 subd. 3 (a)(1)

“Stalk­ing; Penal­ties”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment to aggrav­ated stalk­ing when the offender commits the offense because of the victim’s actual or perceived race, color, reli­gion, sex, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, age, or national origin.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, age, sex

Stat­ute

MINN. STAT. § 609.2231 subd. 4

“Assault in the Fourth Degree”

Summary

Makes it a misde­meanor crime to assault another because of the victim’s actual or perceived race, color, reli­gion, sex, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, age, or national origin, and a felony for repeat offend­ers within five years of their previ­ous convic­tion.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, age, sex

Stat­ute

MINN. STAT. § 626.5531

“Report­ing of Crimes Motiv­ated by Bias”

Summary

Requires peace officers to report every viol­a­tion of chapter 609 or a local crim­inal ordin­ance if the officer has reason to believe or the victim alleges that the offender was motiv­ated to commit the act by the victim’s race, reli­gion, national origin, sex, age, disab­il­ity, or sexual orient­a­tion.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, age, sex

Stat­ute

MINN. STAT. § 626.8451 subd. 1

“Train­ing in Identi­fy­ing and Respond­ing to Certain Crimes”

Summary

Requires a train­ing course to assist peace officers in identi­fy­ing and respond­ing to crimes motiv­ated by the victim’s race, reli­gion, national origin, sex, age, disab­il­ity, or sexual orient­a­tion.

Type

Train­ing

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, age, sex, train­ing

Missis­sippi

Stat­ute

MISS. CODE ANN. § 97–17–39

“Penal­ties for Injur­ing, Destroy­ing or Defa­cing Certain Cemetery Prop­erty, Public Build­ings, Schools or Churches, or Prop­erty Thereof”

Summary

Makes it a crime to destroy burial vaults, urns, memori­als, vases, etc., or churches.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion

Stat­ute

MISS. CODE ANN. §§ 99–19–301 – 99–19–309

“Enhanced Penal­ties for Offenses Commit­ted for Discrim­in­at­ory Reas­ons”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment of impris­on­ment of twice that author­ized by the law for the offense commit­ted, for both felon­ies and misde­mean­ors, if they were commit­ted because of the actual or perceived race, color, ances­try, ethni­city, reli­gion, national origin, or gender of the victim. Provides that penalty enhance­ments can only be imposed by a jury find­ing that the victim was within the class delin­eated.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, ethni­city, ances­try, actual or perceived employ­ment as a law enforce­ment officer, fire­fighter or emer­gency medical tech­ni­cian

Missouri

Stat­ute

MO. REV. STAT. § 557.035

“Hate Offenses – Provides Enhanced Penal­ties for Motiv­a­tional Factors in Certain Offenses”

Summary

Felony penalty enhance­ment for crimes know­ingly motiv­ated by race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sex, sexual orient­a­tion, or disab­il­ity.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, sex

Stat­ute

MO. REV. STAT. § 574.085

“Insti­tu­tional Vandal­ism – Penalty”

Summary

Makes it a crime to vandal­ize, deface, or damage places of worship or a facil­ity used for burial, and certain other prop­er­ties owned and oper­ated by a reli­gious group.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion

Montana

Stat­ute

MONT. CODE ANN. § 45–5–221

“Mali­cious Intim­id­a­tion or Harass­ment Relat­ing to Civil or Human Rights – Penalty”

Summary

Makes it a felony to mali­ciously intim­id­ate, harass, injure, or destroy the prop­erty of a victim because of their race, creed, reli­gion, color, national origin, or involve­ment in civil rights or human rights activ­ity.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, creed, involve­ment in civil rights or human rights activ­it­ies

Stat­ute

MONT. CODE ANN. § 45–5–222

“Sentence Enhance­ment – Offenses Commit­ted Because of Victim’s Race, Creed, Reli­gion, Color, National Origin or Human Rights Activ­it­ies”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment for any crime except mali­cious intim­id­a­tion or harass­ment when the crime was motiv­ated by the victim’s race, color, creed, national origin, or involve­ment in civil rights or human rights activ­ity, or that involved damage/destruc­tion to a build­ing regu­larly used for reli­gious worship.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, creed, involve­ment in civil rights or human rights activ­it­ies

Nebraska

Stat­ute

NEB. REV. STAT. § 28–114

“Enhanced Penalty; Enumer­ated Offenses”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment to next highest penalty clas­si­fic­a­tion for commit­ting manslaughter, assault, terror­istic threats, stalk­ing, kidnap­ping, false impris­on­ment, sexual assault, sexual assault of a child, arson, crim­inal mischief, unau­thor­ized applic­a­tion of graf­fiti, or crim­inal tres­pass offenses because of the victim’s race, color, reli­gion, ances­try, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, age, or disab­il­ity, or because of the victim’s asso­ci­ation with a person of one of the protec­ted categor­ies.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, age, ances­try, asso­ci­ation with a person of one of the protec­ted categor­ies

Stat­ute

NEB. REV. STAT. § 28–114

“Nebraska Commis­sion on Law Enforce­ment and Crim­inal Justice; Duties”

Summary

Requires the Commis­sion to estab­lish, main­tain, and collect data on hate crime offenses.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, age, ances­try, asso­ci­ation with a person of one of the protec­ted categor­ies

Nevada

Stat­ute

NEV. REV. STAT. § 193.1675

“Addi­tional Penalty: Commis­sion of Crime Because of Certain Actual or Perceived Char­ac­ter­ist­ics of Victim”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment for enumer­ated crimes motiv­ated by the actual or perceived race, color, reli­gion, national origin, disab­il­ity, sexual orient­a­tion, or gender iden­tity or expres­sion of the victim differ­ent from that char­ac­ter­istic of the perpet­rator.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity, disab­il­ity

Stat­ute

NEV. REV. STAT. § 207.185

“Penalty for commis­sion of certain unlaw­ful acts by reason of actual or perceived race, color, reli­gion, national origin, phys­ical or mental disab­il­ity, sexual orient­a­tion or gender iden­tity or expres­sion of another person or group of persons”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment to a gross misde­meanor for certain misde­mean­ors motiv­ated by the actual or perceived race, color, reli­gion, national origin, disab­il­ity, sexual orient­a­tion, or gender iden­tity or expres­sion of the victim differ­ent from that char­ac­ter­istic of the perpet­rator.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity, disab­il­ity

New Hamp­shire

Stat­ute

N.H. REV. STAT. ANN. § 651:6 (f)

“Exten­ded Term of Impris­on­ment”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment for enumer­ated crimes motiv­ated by victim’s race, reli­gion, creed, national origin, or sexual orient­a­tion, age, disab­il­ity, law enforce­ment officers, volun­teer fire­fight­ers, on-call fire­fight­ers, or licensed emer­gency medical care providers.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, creed, age, disab­il­ity, law enforce­ment officers, fire­fight­ers, emer­gency medical care providers

New Jersey

Stat­ute

N.J. REV. STAT. § 2C:16–1

“Bias Intim­id­a­tion”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment for crimes commit­ted with a purpose to intim­id­ate an indi­vidual or group of indi­vidu­als because of race, color, reli­gion, gender, disab­il­ity, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity or expres­sion, national origin, or ethni­city.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity, disab­il­ity, ethni­city

* A portion of the stat­ute, allow­ing victim belief of preju­dice to act as evid­ence, was held uncon­sti­tu­tional in State v. Pomi­anek, 221 N.J. 66 (2015)

Stat­ute

N.J. REV. STAT. § 2C:33–11

“Deface­ment of Private Prop­erty, Crime of Fourth Degree; Act of Graf­fiti, Addi­tional Penalty”

Summary

Makes it a felony to damage or deface a place of worship or burial by placing thereon a symbol, an object, a char­ac­ter­iz­a­tion, an appel­la­tion, or graf­fiti that exposes another to a threat of viol­ence.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion

Stat­ute

N.J. Rev. Stat. § 52:9DD-9

“Duties of Coun­cil”

Summary

Requires collec­tion of hate crime data by the Human Rights Coun­cil, includ­ing devel­op­ing policy propos­als for the State and assist with coordin­at­ing efforts to promote preju­dice reduc­tion and prevent and deter crimes based upon the victim’s race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, ethni­city, gender, or phys­ical, mental or cognit­ive disab­il­ity.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, ethni­city, data collec­tion

New Mexico

Stat­ute

N.M. STAT. ANN. § 30–15–4

“Desec­ra­tion of a Church”

Summary

Makes it a felony to desec­rate or deface any church.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment of an addi­tional year of impris­on­ment for noncap­ital crimes motiv­ated by hate. Requires every law enforce­ment agency to collect hate crime data to provide to the FBI, and requires the New Mexico Law Enforce­ment Academy to provide officer train­ing on the detec­tion, invest­ig­a­tion, and report­ing of hate crimes.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Data Collec­tion

Train­ing

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity, disab­il­ity, ances­try, age

New York

Stat­ute

N.Y. PENAL LAW Art. 485

“Hate Crimes”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ments of one category higher for inten­tional offenses commit­ted in whole or in part because of the victim’s believed or perceived race, color, national origin, ances­try, gender, reli­gion, reli­gious prac­tice, age, disab­il­ity or sexual orient­a­tion of a person, even if the belief or percep­tion is incor­rect. Allows for offender hate crime train­ing, educa­tion, or other programs designed to prevent hate crimes.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, ances­try, age

Stat­ute

N.Y. PENAL LAW § 240.31

“Aggrav­ated Harass­ment in the First Degree”

Summary

Makes it a felony to harass, annoy, threaten, or alarm another because of their race, color, national origin, ances­try, gender, reli­gion, reli­gious prac­tice, age, disab­il­ity, or sexual orient­a­tion by burn­ing a cross in a publicly visible manner; damaging premises used primar­ily for reli­gious purposes; etch, paint, or draw a swastika without the express permis­sion of the owner; or etch, draw, or place a noose on any build­ing or real prop­erty without express permis­sion.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, ances­try, age, other

Stat­ute

N.Y. PENAL LAW § 240.71

“Crim­inal Inter­fer­ence with Health­care Services or Reli­gious Worship in the First Degree”

Summary

Felony penalty enhance­ment for repeat offender of crim­inal inter­fer­ence with health­care services or reli­gious worship in second degree.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion

Stat­ute

N.Y. PENAL LAW § 837 (f)(4)(c)

“Func­tions, Powers, and Duties of Divi­sion”

Summary

Requires the Divi­sion of Crim­inal Justice Services to collect and analyze stat­ist­ical and all other data on hate crimes repor­ted to or invest­ig­ated by state or local law enforce­ment, and then provide that inform­a­tion to the governor and state legis­lature.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

North Dakota – No Crim­inal “Hate Crime” Stat­ute

Ohio

Stat­ute

OHIO REV. CODE ANN. § 2927.12

“Ethnic Intim­id­a­tion”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment of one degree higher for viol­a­tions of menacing, aggrav­ated menacing, crim­inal damaging or endan­ger­ing, crim­inal mischief, or tele­com­mu­nic­a­tions harass­ment by reason of the race, color, reli­gion, or national origin of the person or persons.

* Each of the enumer­ated crimes is a misde­mean­or­—this law cannot be used to enhance felony crimes.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment *

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin

Stat­ute

OHIO REV. CODE ANN. §§ 2927.11 (A)(4) & (B)

“Desec­ra­tion”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment to a felony to deface, damage, pollute, or other­wise mistreat places of worship or reli­gious objects therein, or objects of sacred devo­tion.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion

Oklahoma

Stat­ute

OKLA. STAT. tit. 21 § 850

“Mali­cious Harass­ment Based on Race, Color, Reli­gion, Ances­try, National Origin, Disab­il­ity”

Summary

Makes it a crime to mali­ciously intim­id­ate or harass a person because of their race, color, reli­gion, national origin, ances­try, or disab­il­ity. Penalty enhance­ment for a second offense under this stat­ute, and creates a civil right of action. Addi­tion­ally, requires the Oklahoma State Bureau of Invest­ig­a­tion to report hate crimes as defined in this section, and requires a promul­ga­tion of rules, and prac­tices for monthly hate crime data report­ing from state and local law enforce­ment agen­cies, includ­ing crimes motiv­ated by ethni­city.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Penalty Enhance­ment

New Civil Action

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, disab­il­ity, ances­try, ethni­city

Stat­ute

OKLA. STAT. tit. 21, § 1765

“Defa­cing or Injur­ing House of Worship”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment to a felony to deface, damage, pollute, or other­wise mistreat places of worship or reli­gious objects therein, or objects of sacred devo­tion.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion

Oregon

Stat­ute

OR. REV. STAT. [§§ 166.155 & 166.165]

“Intim­id­a­tion”

Summary

Makes it a misde­meanor to, because of the actual or perceived race, color, reli­gion, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, or national origin of the victim, tamper with their prop­erty, cause offens­ive contact to their body, or threaten them with harm to them, their prop­erty, or their family. Makes it a felony when two or more persons inten­tion­ally, know­ingly, or reck­lessly, or with crim­inal negli­gence by means of a deadly weapon, cause phys­ical injury because of the actual or perceived race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion or disab­il­ity of their victim, or commit conduct that would consti­tute intim­id­a­tion in the second degree if only commit­ted by one person.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, family member of person with protec­ted char­ac­ter­ist­ics

Stat­ute

Or. Rev. Stat. § 181A.225

“Report­ing of Crime Stat­ist­ics”

Summary

Requires all state and local law enforce­ment to report crimes motiv­ated by preju­dice against the victim’s race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, marital status, polit­ical affil­i­ation or beliefs, member­ship in labor organ­iz­a­tion, disab­il­ity, age, or economic and social status, or citizen­ship status to the Depart­ment of State Police. The depart­ment shall prepare annual and quarterly reports for use by report­ing agen­cies and others.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, marital status, polit­ical affil­i­ation or beliefs, member­ship or activ­ity in or on behalf of a labor organ­iz­a­tion or against a labor organ­iz­a­tion, age, economic or social status, citizen­ship

Stat­ute

Or. Rev. Stat. § 181A.470

“Train­ing Related to the Vienna Conven­tion and Crimes Motiv­ated by Preju­dice or That Consti­tute Abuse”

Summary

Requires the Board of Public Safety Stand­ards and Train­ing to provide train­ing to all law enforce­ment offers on the iden­ti­fic­a­tion, invest­ig­a­tion, and report­ing of crimes motiv­ated by race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, marital status, polit­ical affil­i­ation or beliefs, member­ship in labor organ­iz­a­tion, disab­il­ity, age, or economic and social status, or citizen­ship status.

Type

Train­ing

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, marital status, polit­ical affil­i­ation or beliefs, member­ship or activ­ity in or on behalf of a labor organ­iz­a­tion or against a labor organ­iz­a­tion, age, economic or social status, citizen­ship

Pennsylvania

Stat­ute

18 PA. CONS. STAT. § 2710

“Ethnic Intim­id­a­tion”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment of one degree higher for non-summary offenses direc­ted with mali­cious inten­tion toward the victim’s race, color, reli­gion, or national origin. For under­ly­ing summary offenses, penalty shall be a misde­meanor.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin

Stat­ute

PA. ADM. CODE § 710 (i)

“Pennsylvania State Police”

Summary

Requires the Pennsylvania State Police to collect data on hate crimes based on the victim’s race, color, reli­gion, or national origin, which shall be repor­ted monthly by all local law enforce­ment agen­cies and the State Fire Marshal.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin

Rhode Island

Stat­ute

R.I. GEN. LAWS § 12–19–38

“Hate Crimes Senten­cing Act”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment for both misde­meanor and felony offenses commit­ted because of the hatred or animus toward the victim’s actual or perceived disab­il­ity, reli­gion, color, race, national origin or ances­try, sexual orient­a­tion, or gender of that person or the owner or occu­pant of that prop­erty.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, ances­try

Stat­ute

R.I. GEN. LAWS § 42–28–46

“Devel­op­ment of System Monit­or­ing Crimes Motiv­ated by Bigotry and Bias”

Summary

Requires the state police to collect hate crime data on crimes motiv­ated by bigotry against the victim’s race, reli­gion, ethni­city, gender, gender iden­tity, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, or home­less status.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, reli­gion, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity, disab­il­ity, ethni­city, home­less or perceived to be home­less

Stat­ute

R.I. GEN. LAWS § 42–28.2–8.1

“Educa­tional Require­ments — Hate Crimes”

Summary

Requires the Commis­sion on Stand­ards and Train­ing to prepare and publish train­ing mater­i­als on identi­fy­ing, invest­ig­at­ing, and report­ing hate crimes.

Type

Train­ing

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, reli­gion, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity, disab­il­ity, ethni­city, home­less or perceived to be home­less

South Caro­lina – No Crim­inal “Hate Crime” Stat­ute

Stat­ute

S.C. CODE ANN. § 16–7–120

“Placing Burn­ing or Flam­ing Cross in Public Place”

Summary

Makes it a misde­meanor to burn a cross in public or the prop­erty of another without express permis­sion to do so.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Other

Stat­ute

S.C. CODE ANN. § 16–11–535

“Mali­cious Injury to Place of Worship”

Summary

Makes it a felony to or attempt to or aid in the vandal­iz­a­tion, deface­ment, damaging, or destroy­ing of a place of worship.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion

South Dakota

Summary

Makes it a felony to intim­id­ate or harass a specific person or group because of their race, ethni­city, reli­gion, ances­try, or national origin. Incor­por­ates cross burn­ing or placing of any word or symbol commonly asso­ci­ated with racial, reli­gious, or ethnic terror­ism into the crime of deface­ment. Makes it a misde­meanor to prevent another from prac­ti­cing their reli­gion by threats or viol­ence. Makes it a misde­meanor to compel another to prac­tice or adopt a reli­gion by threat or viol­ence.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, reli­gion, national origin, ethni­city, ances­try

Tennessee

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment to a higher class of felony when know­ingly commit­ting arson by damaging a struc­ture by means of fire or explo­sion when the damaged struc­ture is a place of worship.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion

Stat­ute

TENN. CODE ANN. § 39–17–309

“Civil Rights Intim­id­a­tion”

Summary

Makes it a felony to injure, damage, deface, or destroy any real or personal prop­erty of another with the purpose of intim­id­at­ing that person from exer­cising their civil rights, regard­less of race, color, ances­try, reli­gion, or national origin. Addi­tional misde­meanor when wear­ing a mask or disguise with the intent to commit the above.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, ances­try

Stat­ute

TENN. CODE ANN. § 39–17–311 (a)(1)

“Desec­ra­tion of Vener­ated Object”

Summary

Makes it a felony to inten­tion­ally desec­rate a place of worship or burial.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, ances­try

Stat­ute

TENN. CODE ANN. § 40–35–114 (17)

“Enhance­ment Factors”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment for offenses commit­ted when the defend­ant inten­tion­ally selec­ted the victim or their prop­erty in whole or in part because of their real or perceived race, reli­gion, color, disab­il­ity, sexual orient­a­tion, national origin, ances­try, or gender.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, ances­try, age

Texas

Stat­ute

TEX. CODE CRIM. PROC. ANN. art. 42.014

“Find­ing That Offense Was Commit­ted Because of Bias or Preju­dice”

Summary

Determ­ines that the fact-finder, whether judge or jury, determ­ine beyond a reas­on­able doubt that an offense was commit­ted because of offend­er’s bias or preju­dice against race, color, reli­gion, national origin or ances­try, gender, disab­il­ity, or sexual pref­er­ence. Upon such a find­ing, the judge may order a sentence of an educa­tional program on toler­ance of others.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, age, ances­try

Stat­ute

TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. § 12.47

“Penalty If Offense Commit­ted Because of Bias or Preju­dice”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment for all offenses, except first degree felon­ies and Class A misde­mean­ors, to the next highest offense, which were found to have been commit­ted because of bias or preju­dice, as defined in Tex. Code. Crim. Pro. Ann. art. 42.014. For Class A misde­mean­ors, the minimum term of confine­ment is increased 180 days.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, age, ances­try

Stat­ute

TEX. PENAL CODE ANN. § 28.08 (d)(1)

“Graf­fiti”

Summary

Makes it a misde­meanor to commit graf­fiti, with enhanced felony penal­ties if on a place of worship or human burial.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion

Stat­ute

TEX. GOV’T. CODE ANN. § 411.046

“Hate Crime Report­ing”

Summary

Requires the Bureau of Iden­ti­fic­a­tion and records to estab­lish, analyze, and main­tain data on hate crimes. Such data will be submit­ted by all state and local law enforce­ment to the Bureau.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

Utah

Stat­ute

UTAH CODE ANN. § 76–3–203.14

“Victim Target­ing Penalty Enhance­ment—Pen­al­ties”

Summary

Felony and misde­meanor penalty enhance­ments to a higher class or degree, when a defend­ant is found to have inten­tion­ally selec­ted their victim or harmed the prop­erty of a victim because of the defend­ant’s belief or percep­tion regard­ing the victim’s personal attrib­ute or the attrib­ute of another indi­vidual or group with whom the victim had a rela­tion­ship.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, reli­gion, national origin, age, ances­try, disab­il­ity, ethni­city, familial status, gender iden­tity, home­less­ness, marital status, matric­u­la­tion, polit­ical expres­sion, sex, sexual orient­a­tion, service in U.S. Armed Forces, status as emer­gency respon­der, status as law enforce­ment officer, correc­tional officer, special func­tion officer, or any other peace officer.

Stat­ute

UTAH CODE ANN. § 76–3–203.4

“Hate Crimes — Aggrav­at­ing Factors”

Summary

Hate crime offenses are aggrav­at­ing factors in senten­cing, includ­ing the degree of community unrest caused by the offense.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

Stat­ute

UTAH CODE ANN. § 53–10–202

“Crim­inal Iden­ti­fic­a­tion — Duties of Bureau”

Summary

Requires the Bureau of Crim­inal Iden­ti­fic­a­tion to estab­lish a statewide uniform crime report­ing system and gather stat­ist­ics, includ­ing on crimes that evid­ence preju­dice based on race, reli­gion, ances­try, national origin, ethni­city, or other categor­ies the bureau deems appro­pri­ate.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, reli­gion, national origin, ances­try, ethni­city, other categor­ies that the divi­sion finds appro­pri­ate

Vermont

Stat­ute

VT. STAT. ANN. tit. 13 ch. 31 [§§ 1454 – 1457]

“Discrim­in­a­tion”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment for both misde­meanor and felony offenses mali­ciously motiv­ated by the victim’s actual or perceived race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sex, ances­try, age, gender iden­tity, sexual orient­a­tion, or service in U.S. Armed Forces. Makes it a felony to burn a cross or other reli­gious symbol with the inten­tion of terror­iz­ing or harass­ing another. Includes a civil right of action.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity, disab­il­ity, sex, ances­try, age, service in the U.S. Armed Forces

Virginia

Stat­ute

VA. CODE ANN. § 18.2–57 (B)

“Assault and Battery; Penalty”

Summary

Felony penalty enhance­ment with a minimum term of confine­ment for assaults and batter­ies where the offender inten­tion­ally selects the victim because of their race, color, reli­gious convic­tion, or national origin.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin

Stat­ute

VA. CODE ANN. § 18.2.127 (B)

“Injur­ies to Churches, Church Prop­erty, Cemeter­ies, Burial Grounds, etc.; Penalty”

Summary

Makes it a felony to destroy, damage, deface, or other­wise injure any place of worship or surround­ing prop­erty.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion

Stat­ute

VA. CODE ANN. § 18.2–423

“Burn­ing Cross on the Prop­erty of Another or Public Place with Intent to Intim­id­ate; Penalty; Prima Facie Evid­ence of Intent”

Summary

Makes it a crime to burn a cross on the prop­erty of another or public prop­erty with intent to intim­id­ate any person or group or persons.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion, other

* Prima facie evid­ence of intent held uncon­sti­tu­tion­ally over­broad in Elli­ott v. Common­wealth, 267 Va. 464 (2004)

Stat­ute

VA. CODE ANN. § 18.2–423.01

“Burn­ing Object on Prop­erty of Another or a High­way or Other Public Place with Intent to Intim­id­ate; Penalty”

Summary

Makes it a felony to burn an object on the prop­erty of another or public place with the intent to intim­id­ate.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Other

Stat­ute

VA. CODE ANN. § 18.2–423.1

“Placing Swastika on Certain Prop­erty With Intent to Intim­id­ate; Penalty; Prima Facie Evid­ence of Intent”

Summary

Makes it a felony to place a swastika on any build­ing used for reli­gious worship or gath­er­ing, or school, educa­tional facil­ity, or community centers owned or oper­ated by a church or reli­gious body with the intent to intim­id­ate.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Reli­gion

Stat­ute

VA. CODE ANN. § 18.2–423.2

“Display­ing a Noose on Prop­erty of Another or High­way or Other Public Place With Intent to Intim­id­ate; Penalty”

Summary

Makes it a felony to display a noose on the prop­erty of another or public place with intent to intim­id­ate.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Other

Stat­ute

VA. CODE ANN. § 52–8.5

“Report­ing Hate Crimes”

Summary

Requires the Super­in­tend­ent of the Depart­ment of State Police to estab­lish and main­tain a cent­ral repos­it­ory for the collec­tion and analysis of hate crime data, groups, and indi­vidu­als carry­ing out such acts.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, reli­gion, national origin, ethni­city

Wash­ing­ton

Stat­ute

WASH. REV. CODE ANN. [§§ 9A.36.078 – 9A.36.083]

“Mali­cious Harass­ment”

Summary

Makes it a felony to mali­ciously harass a victim based on their actual or perceived race, color, ances­try, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, or mental, phys­ical, or sens­ory handi­cap, or to burn a cross on prop­erty of a victim who is or whom the actor perceives to be of African Amer­ican herit­age, or to deface the prop­erty with a swastika of a victim who the actor perceives to be of Jewish herit­age. Addi­tion­ally, provides for civil remed­ies.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Civil Remed­ies

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, ances­try, African Amer­ic­ans, those of Jewish Ances­try

Stat­ute

Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 36.28A.030

“Mali­cious Harass­ment — Inform­a­tion Report­ing and Dissem­in­a­tion”

Summary

Requires the Wash­ing­ton Asso­ci­ation of Sher­iffs & Police Chiefs to estab­lish and main­tain a cent­ral repos­it­ory of hate crime data, and to create a monthly report to present to the governor, the senate law and justice commit­tee, and the house of repres­ent­at­ives’ judi­ciary commit­tee.

Type

Data Collec­tion

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, gender iden­tity, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, ances­try

Stat­ute

Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 43.101.290

“Train­ing in Crimes of Mali­cious Harass­ment”

Summary

Requires the crim­inal justice train­ing commis­sion to develop and train officers on the iden­ti­fic­a­tion, response, and report­ing of bias crimes.

Type

Train­ing

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, ances­try, African Amer­ic­ans, those of Jewish Ances­try

West Virginia

Stat­ute

W. Va. Code Ann. § 61–6–21

“Prohib­it­ing Viol­a­tions of An Indi­vidu­al’s Civil Rights; Penal­ties”

Summary

Makes it a felony to intim­id­ate by threat of viol­ence, force or threat of force, or to conspire against or teach a method of intim­id­a­tion against a victim or group because of their race, color, reli­gion, ances­try, national origin, polit­ical affil­i­ation or sex. Addi­tion­ally, the commis­sion of a hate crime will be considered an aggrav­at­ing factor for any under­ly­ing crime.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, ances­try, polit­ical affil­i­ation, sex

Wiscon­sin

Stat­ute

Wis. Stat. § 939.645

“Crimes Commit­ted Against Certain People or Prop­erty”

Summary

Penalty enhance­ment misde­meanor and felony offenses commit­ted against victims or their prop­erty are inten­tion­ally selec­ted because of their race, reli­gion, color, disab­il­ity, sexual orient­a­tion, national origin or ances­try.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, ances­try

Stat­ute

Wis. Stat. § 943.012

“Crim­inal Damage to or Graf­fiti on Reli­gious and Other Prop­erty”

Summary

Makes it a felony to damage or deface a place of worship or burial, or a facil­ity primar­ily asso­ci­ated with groups defined by a partic­u­lar signi­fic­ance or value to any group of persons of a partic­u­lar race, reli­gion, color, disab­il­ity, sexual orient­a­tion, national origin or ances­try.

Type

Inde­pend­ent Offense

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, national origin, sexual orient­a­tion, disab­il­ity, ances­try

Wyom­ing – No Crim­inal “Hate Crime” Stat­ute

Stat­ute

N/A

Summary

N/A

Type

N/A

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

U.S. Territ­or­ies

Amer­ican Samoa – No Crim­inal “Hate Crime” Stat­ute

Stat­ute

N/A

Summary

N/A

Type

N/A

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

Guam – No Crim­inal “Hate Crime” Stat­ute

Stat­ute

N/A

Summary

N/A

Type

N/A

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

North­ern Mari­ana Islands – No Crim­inal “Hate Crime” Stat­ute

Stat­ute

N/A

Summary

N/A

Type

N/A

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A

Puerto Rico

Stat­ute

P.R LAWS ANN. app. II, r. 171

“Sentence; Evid­ence as to Mitig­at­ing or Aggrav­at­ing Circum­stances”

Summary

Aggrav­at­ing circum­stance in senten­cing when a crime motiv­ated by preju­dice against a victim for reason of their race, color, sex, sexual orient­a­tion, gender, gender iden­tity, origin, ethnic origin, civil status, birth, phys­ical and/or mental disab­il­ity, social status, reli­gion, age, reli­gious or polit­ical beliefs.

Type

Penalty Enhance­ment

Protec­ted Categor­ies

Race, color, reli­gion, gender, sexual orient­a­tion, gender iden­tity, disab­il­ity, sex, origin, ethnic origin, civil status, birth, social status, age, reli­gious or polit­ical beliefs

U.S. Virgin Islands – No Crim­inal “Hate Crime” Stat­ute

Stat­ute

N/A

Summary

N/A

Type

N/A

Protec­ted Categor­ies

N/A