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Criminal Disenfranchisement Laws Across the United States

Millions of Americans are excluded from our democratic process on the basis of criminal disenfranchisement laws. This map summarizes current state laws on criminal disenfranchisement.

Last Updated: September 10, 2021
Published: May 30, 2019

Millions of Americans are excluded from our democratic process on the basis of criminal disenfranchisement laws. These laws strip voting rights from people with past criminal convictions — and they vary widely between states. Twenty eight states* bar community members from voting, simply on the basis of convictions in their past. Navigating this patchwork of state laws can be exceedingly difficult, especially because election officials often misunderstand their own states’ laws.

Click on any state for a summary of its current laws on criminal disenfranchisement. States have a range of policies as to whether citizens with pending legal financial obligations (LFOs) relating to their convictions are eligible to vote, and also as to whether and in what circumstances misdemeanors are disenfranchising. These policies are not reflected in the below graphic. Click here for a PDF version of this map.

* On April 7, 2021, Washington Gov. Inslee signed a law that will automatically restore voting rights upon release from prison when it goes into effect in January 2022. Because it is not yet effective, that change is not reflected on the map below.

Criminal Disenfranchisement Laws Across the United States

Key:

Permanent disenfranchisement for all people with felony convictions

Permanent disenfranchisement for at least some people with criminal convictions

Voting rights restored upon completion of sentence, including prison, parole, and probation

Voting rights restored for those on probation or parole who have not been incarcerated during the last five years

Voting rights restored automatically after release from prison

No disenfranchisement for people with criminal convictions